Damage Report on a Newly Recorded Coleopteran Pest, Aphanisticus congener (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from Turfgrass in Korea
  • Damage Report on a Newly Recorded Coleopteran Pest, Aphanisticus congener (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from Turfgrass in Korea
  • Byunghun Kang , Faisal Md. Kabir , Eun-Ji Bae , Gwang Soo Lee , Byungduk Jeon , Dong Woon Lee
  • Weed & Turfgrass Science.2016. Dec, 5(4): 274-279
    DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5660/WTS.2016.5.4.274

  • Weed&Turfgrass Science was renamed from both formerly Korean Journal of Weed Science from Volume 32 (3), 2012, and formerly Korean Journal of Turgrass from Volume 25 (1), 2011 and Asian Journal of Turgrass Science from Volume 26 (2), 2012 which were launched by The Korean Society of Weed Science and the Turfgrass Society of Korea founded in 1981 and 1987, respectively.
  • Copyright @ 2016, The Korean Society of Weed Science and The Turfgrass Society of Korea Archive
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Abstract
Aphanisticus congener is a newly recorded buprestid (Coleoptera) insect pest of turfgrass in Korea. This buprestid pest was initially found from turfgrass conservation site in a greenhouse in Jinju, Gyeongnam province, Korea in July, 2014. The Aphanisticus in the family Buprestidae is a leaf miner. A. congener is the close species of A. aeneus which was firstly reported as sugarcane leaf sucker in India. A. congener was active from early July to late August in the greenhouse. Damage by the insect led to drying out and browning of turfgrass leaf because larva fed on cell sap of leaves and adult fed on leaf surface. A. congener damaged Zoysia japonica , Z. sinica , Conodon dactylon , and Poa pratensis when adults were artificially released into potted turfgrasses in the laboratory. In green house, A. congener damaged Z. japonica , Z. macrostachya , Z. matrella , Z. sinica , Conodon dactylon , and hybrid zoysiagrass. However, no damage symptoms were observed from the same turfgrass accessions in the nearby field of the greenhouse. Thus, the new coleopteran pest may be a warm-adapted pest for turfgrass, damaging turfgrass leaf only in warmer conditions.
Keywords
Humans have used turfgrass to enhance their environment for more than 1000 years ( Beard and Green, 1994 ). Turfgrass provide substantial environmental, recreational, and aesthetic benefits ( Potter, 1998 ). Potter (1998) enumerated the following benefits provided by lush and healthy turf; 1) capturing and cleaning of runoff water from urban areas, 2) providing soil improvement and restoration, 3) moderating temperature and improving air quality, 4) reducing noise and glare, 5) reducing pests, pollen, and human disease exposure, 6) properly designing urban green areas such as golf courses, parks, and backyards create good wildlife habitat, and 7) improving the physical and mental health of the urban population.
Thus, turfgrass have been grown in a large area and become one of the important agricultural businesses in many countries. In the United State of America, turfgrass industry generated revenue yields exceeding $62 billion in 2005 while sustaining about 825,000 jobs ( Haydu et al., 2005 ). The size of Korean turfgrass business is 1/30-1/40 of USA ( Lee et al., 2001 ). The golf courses are the biggest market, and followed by road side, cemetery, and playground in turn in Korea ( Lee et al., 2001 ). Farmers producing sods and area of sod cultivation have increased from 2001 and total size of sod cultivation was 3,056 ha in Korea in 2011 ( Choi and Yang, 2006 ; Korea Forest Service, 2012 ; Bae et al., 2013 ).
Although turfgrass are important cash crops, several kinds of pests including insect pests are obstacles to maintain and run turf fields. Main insect pests are coleopteran and lepidopteran insects in turfgrass ( Brandenburg and Freeman, 2012 ; Hatsukade, 1995 ; Potter, 1998 ; Watschke et al., 2013 ). In Korea, thirteen species in 8 families of 6 orders and 28 species in 10 families of 6 orders were listed as turfgrass insect pests in sod cultivation areas and golf courses, respectively ( Choo et al., 2000 ; Lee et al., 2014 ).
Species and density of turfgrass insect pests were different depending on locality and season and sometimes some insect pests have been newly described from turfgrasses ( Choo et al., 2000 ; Kim et al., 2011 ; Billeisen and Brandenburg, 2014 ).
In the course of surveying on insect pests from turfgrasses, coleopteran leaf feeding pest was found. The larva bores inside of leaf and adult feeds on outer surface of leaf. Because leaf miners have not been recorded from turfgrasses, this unique insect is firstly recorded leaf miner pest from turfgrass. The insect pest was identified as Aphanisticus congener included family Buprestidae in Coleoptera ( Choi et al., 2016 ). Thus, some information including damage status on newly recorded leaf miner pest collected from field and pot tests is presented for the further study on this new important insect pest.
Insect pests were investigated from potted turfgrasses in greenhouse located in Southern Forest Resource Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute, Jinju, Gyeongnam province, Korea from March 2014. In this greenhouse, 338 genetic conservation turfgrasses which were collected from various sites in Korea from 2010 have been transplanted and maintained in pots ( Fig. 1A ). In addition, turfgrasses collected from the same greenhouse were transplanted and maintained in the field near greenhouse ( Fig. 1B ). Collected beetles ( A. congener ) were put in a 10 ml glass vial, brought to laboratory and observed under the microscope (SMZ 800, Nicon, Kanagawa, Japan) in laboratory.
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Surveyed greenhouse (A) and field (B) in Southern Forest Resource Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute, Jinju, Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea.
In first year, A. congener was collected from the green house and identified as a turf pest by following different published references ( Saunders, 1873 ; Kurosawa, 1985 ). Next year, the damage percentage of the turfgrass caused by A. congener was counted in same green house. Total 131 turfgrass isolates which were already grown in the greenhouse pot (20X20X15 cm) were investigated. All the investigations were made by random hand picking method and identified the damaged leaf (damage caused by feeding habit of the beetle). Single turfgrass isolate which have more than 30 leaves were selected. 10 leaves out of each turfgrass isolate were counted as a single replication and damage rate were recorded in each replication (i.e. single turfgrass isolate have three replications).
Z. japonica was bought from local market, planted in the pot (10×16×5 cm), and kept in laboratory. The Kentucky blue grass ( Poa pratensis ) was grown by seeding in the same pot and kept in laboratory. One month later (19 July) beetles were collected from the greenhouse of Jinju (where, A. congener was first identified) and brought to laboratory with turfgrass as food to keep alive. In each pot 10 beetles were released and every pot was covered with protected turf case (30×25×20 cm) not to escape from the case. Damage was checked daily with the same way made in greenhouse.
The damaged number of leaf of turfgrass caused by A. congener that has already been counted was then converted into percentages by arcsine transformation and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) ( SAS Institute, 2011 ). The percentages (mean±SD) are shown in the table. Significant differences between means were separated by Tukey’s test (P<0.05).
The adult beetles damaging surface of upside part of leaf by feeding the cell sap were observed and damaged leaf finally turned to have white stripes by insect feeding ( Fig. 2A ). However, the larvae damaged inside of leaf by remaining under the cortex layer of the leaf ( Fig. 2B ). Similar damage symptoms were observed from larval and adult’s damage.
Damage caused by the A. congener was observed in Cynodon dactylon ( Fig. 2C ), Zoysia japonica ( Fig. 2D ), Z. sinica ( Fig. 2E ), and hybrid zoysia ( Fig. 2F ). Damage was observed only from turfgrasses in greenhouse, but not from turfgrasses in outside field near greenhouse.
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Damage symptom of turfgrass caused by adult (A) and larva (B) of Aphanisticus congener and damage in Cynodon dactylon (C); Zoysia japonica (D); Z. sinica (E) and hybrid zoysia (F) in greenhouse.
Detailed damage symptom of A. congener was investigated using potted turfgrass. 10 individuals of A. congener were released into potted zoysiagrass ( Z. japonica ) and Kentucky bluegrass ( P. pratensis ) to investigate the damage symptom. The damage symptom caused by A. congener from artificially released potted turfgrass showed similar pattern as observed in greenhouse turfgrass ( Fig. 3 ).
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Damage caused by Aphanisticus congener in zoysiagrass, Zoysia japonica (A) and Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis (B)in laboratory. Aphanisticus congener was artificially released in each turfgrass pot.
A. congener injured and made damage symptom on 5 species of zoysiagrasses ( Z. japonica, Z. macrostachya, Z. matrella, Z. sinica and hybrid zoysiagrass) and bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon , in greenhouse ( Table 1 ). Damage rate was different among turfgrass isolates (df=130, 262, F=5.79, P<0.0001). Only 2 isolates (SN001- Paspalum vaginatum and Koraishiba- Z. matrella ) were not damaged by A. congener out of 131 surveyed turfgrass isolates. Mean stem damage rates were 44.6±14.3% in C. dactylon , 28.3±13.8% in hybrid zoysiagrass, 28.6±14.1% in Z. japonica , 18.4±8.5% in Z. macrostachya , 20.1±13.9% in Z. matrella and 30.4±14.1% in Z. sinica respectively. Based on stem damage rate, burmudagrass was more susceptible than zoysiagrass by A. congener . Damage rate of Cynodon dactylon showed the most damage caused by A. congener . This may be caused by the different leaf structures than other species ( Potter, 1998 ).
Percent damage rate of turfgrass lines byA. congener.
Turf species Isolated code % leaf damage with SDy Turf species Isolated code % Stem damage with SD
Cynodon dactylon BN004 34.3±1.7 A-Mz Hybridzoysiagrass S13 25.0±5.0 A-O
BN005 35.7±4.6 A-M S18 12.7±6.3 G-P
BN011 43.9±14.6 A-J Senoc 30.2±3.0 A-O
BN7003 33.6±2.6 A-M Z6004 12.7±4.7 F-P
BN7013 57.7±3.5 A-E Z6005 6.7±11.5 M-P
BN7014 48.1±29.2 A-J Z6006 30.0±10.0 A-O
BN7021 50.2±3.6 A-H Z6009 19.1±8.7 A-P
BN7030 62.5±4.9 AB Z6013 13.0±6.1 F-P
BN7036 51.7±8.0 A-G Z6014 16.7±5.8 B-P
BN7044 45.4±24.3 A-J Z6018 21.3±5.4 A-P
BN7048 64.6±6.4 A Z6028 22.7±3.9 A-P
BN7066 46.1±3.6 A-I Z6030 25.8±5.2 A-O
BN7068 4.9±4.3 L-P Z6053 37.4±19.6 A-L
BN7070 45.8±7.9 A-I Z6061 19.4±10.1 A-P
S-30 44.7±4.7 A-J Z6073 32.3±4.6 A-N
Hybrid zoysiagrass Anyang 13.3±5.8 E-P Z6077 22.7 ±6.4 A-P
CF6034 13.3±5.8 E-P Z6081 34.4±5.1 A-M
CF6035 18.3±1.7 A-P Z6088 18.3±16.1 E-P
CF6036 44.2±22.7 A-J Z6090 38.8±10.2 A-L
CJ1007 44.5±17.3 A-J Z6096 20.0±20.0 D-P
CJ1018 23.3±15.3 A-P Z6101 47.0±2.6 A-I
CJ1019 38.5±7.8 A-L Z6112 22.7±6.4 A-P
CJ1025 51.8±7.4 A-G Z6113 35.5±15.0 A-M
CJ4016 5.3±4.6 L-P Z6116 5.8±5.0 L-P
CJ6003 42.1±7.1 A-J Z6118 28.2±9.2 A-O
CJ6004 28.8±8.2 A-O Z6132 19.4±10.1 A-P
CJ6005 41.8±10.5 A-K CS6002 35.5±7.8 A-M
CJ6006 31.8±27.6 A-O CS6038 45.6±10.7 A-J
CJ6008 39.3±2.7 A-M CS6039 13.3±5.8 E-P
CJ6009 16.1±5.3 C-P CS6040 24.2±5.2 A-O
CJ6010 26.7±8.8 A-O CS6041 51.8±7.4 A-G
CJ6011 15.8±5.8 C-P Genhee 8.8±9.1 J-P
CJ6012 36.6±3.3 A-M Milnok 69.8±3.0 A-G
CJ6013 24.1±3.7 A-O Z6136 16.7±11.5 C-P
CJ6014 42.4±2.8 A-M Z6142 50.0±10.0 A-H
CJ6020 47.8±13.5 A-H ZN6023 23.0±15.7 A-P
CJ6023 49.7±19.6 A-H ZN6024 37.0±17.3 A-M
CJ6024 29.6±11.0 A-O ZN6031 12.5±6.5 G-P
CJ6030 51.8±7.4 A-G ZN6082 16.1±12.7 C-P
CK1028 43.3±20.8 A-J ZN6085 19.1±8.7 A-P
CK6029 16.7±15.3 G-P ZN6087 27.1±8.8 A-O
Paspalum vaginatum SN001 0.0±0.0 P Z. matrella S-20 33.9±6.7 A-O
Zoysia japonica Jenics 41.1±1.0 A-O Z4010-1 25.1±11.2 A-O
S22 23.3±15.3 A-P Z4052 8.3±1.5 H-P
S-6 16.7±5.8 B-P Z4058 29.8±6.6 A-O
S7 3.3±5.8 NOP Z4082 24.4±15.0 A-O
Z1008 11.9±5.5 G-P Z4095-3 41.8±10.5 A-K
Z1014 21.7±2.9 A-P Z4099 42.1±7.1 A-J
Z1050 43.3±12.4 A-J Z4100 11.9±4.1 G-P
Z1056 40.0±17.3 A-L ZN4025 2.6±4.4 OP
Z1067 26.0±3.6 A-O ZN4049 16.1±5.3 C-P
Z1094 16.7±1.4 B-P ZN4054 27.2±2.5 A-O
Z1102 24.8±10.0 A-O ZN4065 6.1±5.4 K-P
Z1122 26.7±15.3 A-O ZN4067 12.8±6.3 F-P
Z1134 35.0±6.0 A-O Z. sinica S2 53.3±15.3 A-G
Z1136 31.2±4.7 A-N S-4 58.6±22.7 A-D
ZN008 32.1±3.7 A-N Z2002 31.9±14.3 A-N
ZN1045 31.2±4.7 A-N Z2017 21.8±4.8 A-P
ZN1046 15.5±6.3 C-P Z2043 35.2±8.9 A-M
ZN1053 19.1±8.7 A-P Z2049 23.4±3.7 A-O
ZN1055 60.0±10.0 ABC Z2097 22.7±6.4 A-P
ZN1063 24.1±3.7 A-O ZN2022 10.0±10.0 I-P
ZN1080 57.1±8.6 A-F ZN2034 26.7±5.8 A-O
Z. macrostachya S-23 12.4±5.0 G-P ZN2061 25.2±6.2 A-O
S-3 24.4±5.9 A-O ZN2062 26.1±21.1 A-O
Z. matrella Koraisiba 0.0±0.0 P
ySD: standard deviation.
zThe same uppercase letter in row indicated that there is no significant difference among means (Tukey’s test, P < 0.05).
A. congener Saunders is recorded as a new insect pest of turfgrass ( Zoysia japonica ) in Korea. The new buprestid pest was found only from genetic conservation turfgrasses in greenhouse in Jinju, Gyeongnam province, Korea in 2014. Taxonomical report of this species in Korea was published at 2016 ( Choi et al., 2016 ).
The genus Aphanisticus is distributed throughout the continents and habitats of the Old World ( Bellamy, 2007 ). Aphanisticus congener has very close similarities to A. aeneus which was firstly reported in India as sugarcane leaf sucker ( Mukunthan and Nirmala, 2002 ). Some other species of Aphanisticus were also recorded as insect pests of sugarcane in Southeast Asia and USA ( Mahesh et al., 2013 ; Wellso and Jackman, 1995 ).
A. congener was first described by Saunders (1873) from specimens collected in Japan. Adults are about 3 ㎜ long, black, and described as follows: “Head very small, channeled between the eyes. Thorax largely and irregularly punctured; front margin scarcely more than half the length of the base; sides rounded, chiefly posteriorly, and depressed, especially near the hind angles; the margin itself is slightly elevated; base straight. Elytra transversely rugose and largely punctate-striate, sides sinuated above the middle; apex rounded.unded.re abside and legs are punctured, the second antennal segment is large and round, the terminal four segments forming a decided club ( Saunders 1873 , Kurosawa et al., 1985 ). It is unclear if A. congener is indigenous to Korea, Japan, or elsewhere because so little is known about the species.
Although this buprestid pest was found only from greenhouse condition this time, new pest was thought to be distributed more places in Korea because the occurrence places of this pest was warmer climatic areas. Korea is being influenced by global warming and being largely changed in recent. In addition, there are some subtropical and warmer areas in Korea. Thus, it is possible that new buprestid pest will be distributed more places in Korea. A. aeneus firstly reported from sugarcane crop field in India ( Mukunthan and Nirmala, 2002 ) is also a warmer geographical area species. Further research on ecology and physiology of this insect is needed to eradicate effectively before dispersed widely in Korea. Those study will also lead to get interesting and important information on A. congener for science.
Acknowledgements
We thank O.G. Kweon, Dr. Y.H. Chung and G.Y. Lee for their technical assistance and D.A. Potter from University of Kentucky for editing an earlier draft of the manuscript.
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